Your Central Processing Unit, or CPU is laid directly on the motherboard. The Motherboard is your computer's nerves and your CPU is its brain. Common brands of CPU are Intel and AMD.
The Motherboard of a computer is the large, flat piece that typically lies sideways in your computer. It connects the other parts of the computer an has your computer's basic identity stored within it. Common brands of motherboard are ASUS, Intel, and Gigabyte.
RAM, or Random Access Memory, is sticks of memory that your computer uses to store information while working. RAM upgrades may speed your computer up, however older computers have limits on how much they can handle. Common brands include Corsair and Samsung.
The Case of your computer is the outside shell. It holds everything in one place and makes it look nice within your home or business. There are a multitude of common brands, but mos computers you buy will come with and original case from the manufacturer.
The Hard Drive is your computer's long term memory, its where pictures, video, documents and anything else are stored. Most Hard Drives have a disc within them, like a large floppy disc. Newer Hard Drives are solid state, meaning there are no moving parts that can break with time. Common brands are Seagate, Toshiba, and Western Digital.
Your Power Supply, or PSU, is the part of your computer that transfers power in the right amounts to all of the other parts of your computer. In laptops, the PSU may be part of your motherboard, or it may be a single wire. Common Brands are Coolermaster, Corsair, and EVGA.
Wireless cards are small pieces within your computer that allow it to use WiFi. They are absent in computers made before WiFi became common.
All computers will have simple fans within to regulate temperature, however, more robust computers may still face overheating.This is counteracted by Cooling Systems, whether they are Radiators or Water Systems. These are highly uncommon, and typically only found in computers used by professionals, hobbyists, government, and military. There are no common brands, as this is a fairly uncommon part.
The Graphics Card of your computer is in charge of showing more complicated images, like 3D models and high resolution images and video. Some graphics cards are separate pieces, and some are built into the motherboard. Common brands of Graphics Cards are AMD and Nvidia.
Peripherals describes all parts separate from your computer. Some Peripherals, typically webcams and microphones, are built into nicer computers. They typically serve a single purpose that is not necessary for a computer to run. Logitech is a very common brand for most Peripherals.
The Screen is fairly obvious as to where it is, however there are plenty of things that can go wrong. Screens can be replaced with a used screen from a broken computer, or with surplus parts. To be safe, you should always use the Screen built for a computer.
The Keyboard of a computer is just as self evident as the screen, and it can have just as many things go wrong. It is only good for the computer to use the keyboard made for it.
Laptops have their own versions of RAM, Motherboards, Graphics Cards, Power Supplies, and more. Full size parts will simply not fit within a laptop.